Most of the world of the world’s population now lives in large conurbations. The characteristics of these metropolitan areas are that they are ethnically and socially diverse and a high proportion of food is consumed outside the home or ready prepared. Workers and children spend much time travelling to work and school respectively and shift work is needed to maintain the transport infrastructure and food supply. Individuals can no longer rely on traditional support networks of families. Single-parent families and teenage pregnancies are prevalent and homelessness is a major problem. These conditions present major challenges for improving nutrition.